Mulloway (Argyrosomus jappnicus) is an endemic species that is found along the southern coastline of Australia from Southern QLD to WA. Traditionally, Mulloway have been wild-caught, with SA accounting for the bulk of production. They are however an ideal fish for aquaculture being hardy, fast-growing and highly adaptable. They naturally live in a range of salinities and prefer slightly turbid water, especially when juveniles. They also have a natural preference to form schools and spend long periods of time ‘hovering’ rather than swimming.
The farming of Mulloway is primarily focused in SA, where fish are bred in hatcheries and subsequently transferred to open pen sea cages for grow-out. There is also an emerging mulloway aquaculture sector in NSW, although production here is focused on the use of land-based pond systems. Many of the sites used in northern NSW are old prawn farms that have been modified for mulloway cultivation.